Ghazali on Tawbah 2

Repentance Ghazali has wonderful clarity as well as a very logical approach which reflects his proficiency as a theologian, philosopher, usuli and faqih and spiritual master. He explains that in order to repent, we should know where our sins emanate from, within us. Sins originate from four main instincts, which Ghazali says each human possesses to varying degrees: Animalistic Hayawaniyyah Predatory Sabu’iyyah Devilish Shaytaniyyah Lordly Rububiyyah He divided it trying to categorise where goodness is coming from and evil. This is what he does explores in much more detail in Ihya Ulum ad- Din. These reflections are coming from Ghazali’s experience and depths of thought. Animalistic (Hayawaniyyah) The animalistic part of man leads to desire, evil and wickedness. Predatory (Sabu’iyyah) This is a feature we share with animals, like hunting, anger, enmity and hatred Devilish (Shaytaniyyah) This part is responsible for cunning, plotting and deceiving. Lordly (Rububiyyah) This is pride, which belongs to Allah, and dignity (izz). These are attributes of Allah which also have in us. We have love of praise, which we need to moderate and control and love of power, which is dangerous if it is unchecked. It is incumbent on us to repent in every state in our life. Why is it incumbent? Whatever we do, we will always make some mistakes – that is our nature. This is why we need to learn how to repent properly. Sins of the limbs and sins of the heart The sin can be through your limbs or your heart. If you harm someone by your hand that is a sin of your limbs, but if you feel animosity towards someone or envy, that is a sin of the heart. For this reason, we need inward and outward purification. The heart which has sins is far from Allah. Repentance … Continue reading Ghazali on Tawbah 2